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Scroll bars often look lighter at the tops of the ridges and darker in the swales. This is because the tops can be shaped by wind, either adding fine grains or by keeping the area unvegetated, while the darkness in the swales can be attributed to silts and clays washing in during high water periods. This added sediment in addition to water that catches in the swales is in turn is a favorable environment for vegetation that will also accumulate in the swales. Depending upon whether a meander is part of an entrenched river or part of a freely meandering river within a floodplain, the term slip-off slope can refer to two different fluvial landforms that comprise the inner, convex, bank of a meander loop.

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In case of a freely meandering river on a floodplain, a slip-off slope is the inside, gently sloping bank of a meander on which sediments episodically accumulate to form a point bar as a river meanders. This type of slip-off slope is located opposite the cutbank. In case of an entrenched river, a slip-off slope is a gently sloping bedrock surface that rises from the inside, concave bank of an asymmetrically entrenched river. This type of slip-off slope is often covered by a thin, discontinuous layer of alluvium.

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It is produced by the gradual outward migration of the meander as a river cuts downward into bedrock. The meander ratio [43] or sinuosity index [44] is a means of quantifying how much a river or stream meanders how much its course deviates from the shortest possible path. It is calculated as the length of the stream divided by the length of the valley.

A perfectly straight river would have a meander ratio of 1 it would be the same length as its valley , while the higher this ratio is above 1, the more the river meanders. Sinuosity indices are calculated from the map or from an aerial photograph measured over a distance called the reach, which should be at least 20 times the average fullbank channel width. The length of the stream is measured by channel, or thalweg, length over the reach, while the bottom value of the ratio is the downvalley length or air distance of the stream between two points on it defining the reach.

The sinuosity index plays a part in mathematical descriptions of streams. The index may require elaboration, because the valley may meander as well—i. In that case the valley index is the meander ratio of the valley while the channel index is the meander ratio of the channel. The channel sinuosity index is the channel length divided by the valley length and the standard sinuosity index is the channel index divided by the valley index.

Distinctions may become even more subtle. Sinuosity Index has a non-mathematical utility as well. Streams can be placed in categories arranged by it; for example, when the index is between 1 and 1. The index is a measure also of stream velocity and sediment load, those quantities being maximized at an index of 1 straight. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Meander disambiguation. A sinuous bend in a series in the channel of a river. Main article: Cut bank. Main article: Meander cutoff.

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Main article: Entrenched river. Main article: Oxbow lake. Main article: Point bar. Main article: Slip-off slope. Riffle-pool sequence Helicoidal flow Baer's law Meander cutoffs in Avulsion river Meander scar Billabong Crevasse splay Jet stream exhibits meander also. Mehl, Jr. Jackson, J. Alexandria, Virginia, American Geological Institute. Fundamentals of fluvial geomorphology. Routledge, New York, New York. Retrieved July 12, Online Etymology Dictionary. April Meandering River Dynamics Doctoral dissertation.

Retrieved from Ideals. River Mechanics. Cambridge University press. In addition concepts are utilized from Graf, Walter Hydraulics of Sediment Transport. Water Resources Publications. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University. New York: Courier Dover Publications.

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One of the important consequences of helical flow in meanders is that sediment eroded from the outside of a meander bend tends to move to the inner bank or point bar of the next downstream bend. Earth Science History. Retrieved Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. Bibcode : AnRFM.. Berlin, New York: Springer. Washington DC: Island Press.

Depositional sedimentary environments: with reference to terrigenous clastics.

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Journal of Geophysical Research. Bibcode : JGRC.. Geological investigation of the alluvial valley of the lower Mississippi River. First photographs of the Canyon Lands. Dictionary by Merriam-Webster: America's most-trusted online dictionary. In Fairbridge, R. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, Vol. McGraw-Hill Company, Inc. Certain types of stream valleys and their meaning. The Journal of Geology , 22 5 , pp.

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The origin and significance of sinuosity along incising bedrock rivers. A treatise on limnology, v. Geography, Physics and Chemistry. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics. Whipple September Surface Processes and Landscape Evolution. Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy 4 ed.

argo-karaganda.kz/scripts/myponuka/1548.php NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Wasser Smith and John Rogers Fluvial Sedimentology 6 ed. Forms by Flowing Water Fluvial Features. In Landforms of the World with Google Earth. July 27, at pm. What a treasure! I am so glad to hear that we will be entertained with more adventures by Bridgie! Thank you for sharing her stories with us! July 28, at am. We only met once, at a Kid Lit Blog conference, but she was such a friendly spark.

I lived in Laurelhurst from , so this was a fun post to stumble upon. My Mom passed away from ovarian cancer on June 3rd. I know how though this is. Thoughs to you, Barrett. July 28, at pm. What a refrreshing voice. My thoughts are with you Barrett and her father. Make each day count. Every day.

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  • Amy Baskin said,. July 29, at pm. Each time I read her posts, I feel myself start to breathe mindfully, smile, and think that I want to be awake like Bridget. Thanks for sharing these, Barrett. August 5, at pm. She was a ray of sunshine! Abstract A stream of fluid flowing down a partially wetting inclined plane usually meanders, unless the volume flow rate is maintained at a highly constant value.

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